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              Guowei Zhang, Academician

              Professor Guowei Zhang, Male, born in1939, Nanyang, Hebei Province. Academician, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1999.

              Education and work resumes:

              Graduated from and taught at the Department of Geology, Northwest University scince 1961, Appointed by Ocean University of China since 2010 as the double appointment Academician. He is currently director of the Institute of Orogen in Northwest University, director of the Academic Committee of the State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Northwest University, honorary president of College of Marine Geosciences in Ocean University of China, Academic Committee of Key Laboratory of Submarine Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, the sixth academic Committee chairman of Northwestern University. He served as the Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council of disciplines, Ministry of Education and Director of Steering Education Committee of sub-Committee of Geology and Geophysics, honorary director of professional teaching of the Geological Society of China, a member of the lithosphere Committee of China, honorary chairman of the Geological Society of Shaanxi Province, invited member of the Advisory Committee of Shaanxi Provincial Government Decision and others.

              Research and experience:

              He has long been engaged in teaching and research of Earth science. He has presided over the commitment to complete the "rich iron studies (iron-richcentral Henan Research)", "Early Precambrian Crustal Formation and Evolution of the southern North China Block", "Lithospheric Structure, Evolution and Mineralization Background of the Qinling Orogen", "Composition, Evolution and Dynamics of the Mianlue Tectonic Zone", "Formation, Evolution and Continental Dynamics of the West Qinling - Songpan Tectonic Knot”, and comparisons to the world’s orogens in other countries, more than 10key national projects from the National Natural Science Foundation and major ministries, more than 20 scientific research projects from the mining, petroleum, metallurgy companies and other sectors, and 9 international cooperation projects.

              He has been invited to the United States, Britain, Germany, Canada, Switzerland, Austria and other countries to cooperate in research and academic exchanges, lectures and to investigate the world's major orogenic belts such as the Alps Orogen, the Hercynian Beltin Europe, Bohemian Massif, the west coast of the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Cordillera and Appalachian Orogenic Belts.

              He is good at Precambrian orogenic belts at his early research stage, especially at the central Qinling Orogenic System and related basins, Precambrian geology of the southern North China block and Qian'an area in the eastern Hebei Province, marine petroleum geology and tectonics in South China as well as the comparison between main domestic and outside orogenic belts, and continental dynamics. He madea creative system of scientific achievement in these fields.

              He has published 7 books and one set of geological, geochemical and geophysical maps on the Qinling Lithosphere in English, and more than 300 papers. Research has won the State Natural Science Award (1999) and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Progress Award (1998) and other eight awards.

              As academic leaders, he attached great importance to the development of discipline, training and establishment of research group of high-level personnel. He took some courses of Structural Geology, Precambrian Geology, Plate Tectonics, Advances in Earth Science, Solid Mechanics and other eightcourses. He is mentoring and training a group of master's, doctoral, postdoctoral and young teachers, developing a multidisciplinary research supporting group.

              Honors:

              l1986, National Outstanding Experts

              l1989, National Outstanding Teachers

              l1991, Special Government Allowances

              l1995, Model Worker of Shaanxi Provincial Science and Technology

              l1999, Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

              l2000, National Advanced Worker of the National Congress

              l2004, the advanced individual of national and Shaanxi Provincial Pacesetter.

              Main Scientific Contribution:

              First, the Qinling Orogenic Belt

              Through 30 years of continuous multi-disciplinary research, he accessed to many new discoveries, proposed new ideas and new understanding of the outlined system, the main results as follows:

              1. He proposed that the Qinling orogenic belt mainly consists of three sets of tectono stratigraphic units, undergoing three evolutionary stages.

              2. He first established the Qinling orogenic lithospheric framework for a three-dimensional structural model of present-day structural rheological stratification "overpass". He revealed that the three-dimensional structure of the crust and mantle of the Qinling and decoupling relations. He also finds that a continent is not easy to recycle into the mantle, resulting in the crustal evolution and long-term preservation. It is important to explore the continental dynamics. The Qinling orogenic crust was established today under opposite large-scale subduction of the North China Block and the Yangtze Block to result in the Qinling outwards overthrusting along the north and south borders with the inner, tremendous, multiple-stage reverse thrusting as the whole structure, with multiple different styles of thrusting, strike-slipping, extensional tectonics, resulting in a complex three-dimensional asymmetric fan-like structure of the orogen.

              3. After restoration and reconstruction of the ancient Qinling tectonic basic pattern and detail orogenic processes, he finds and fixs the second suture zone along the Mianlue-Huashan line and its extention, comprehensively verify the north branch of Paleotethyan originally ocean basin in the East Qinling after long-term evolution. Ultimately the formation and collision among the Yangtze Block, the Qinling Microcontinent and the North China Block have through point, linear and surface contacts to the final collision along Shangdan and Mianlue sutures. He also determined the details of the main division of the Qinling orogenic process.

              4. He demonstrated the Mesozoic-Cenozoic intracontinental Qinling orogenic processes and tectonic evolution, trends and characteristics. The present-day Qinling Orogen is still under deep mantle adjustment, the upper crust delayed response of deep processes, being rapidly uplifting and tends to disperse into three active segments of the Dabie , east Qinling, west Qinling Mountains, demonstrating an important role of controlling our environment and disasters.

              5. As an editor, he published maps on orogenic processes and the three-dimensional structure of the lithosphere (in English), including geology, geochemistry, geophysics of Qinling orogenic belt.

              6. He conducted a comprehensive study of coupling between the Qinling Mountain and basins on both sides, new idea is repeatedly-evolved mountain-basin conversion and coupling relations.

              Second, early Precambrian geology

              Through comprehensive and comparative studies of Precambrian geology in thesouthern North China Craton with other typical areas, the main results achievedas follows:

              1. He established a multi-phase composite and integrated structural geometry of early rock groups in southern North China Block, clarifying the sequence of tectonice volution. He re-determined and established a complex sequence of the Dengfeng greenstone belt, relationships and sequences of the Taihua high-grade supracrustal rocks and granitic complex. He proposed the Angou Group to fillthe vacancies of Lower Proterozoic as the lower horizons in the Songji area.

              2. He determine the Archean Dengfeng Complex as intensively-deformed and metamorphic granite-greenstone area, however, the Taihua Group as high-gradegneiss region. Both of them represent the two basic structural units of early continental crust in the area, undergoing thrusting and overlapping to form a unified craton as a fundamental part of early continental crust in China.

              3. He summarizes the early formation, causes, dynamics and characteristics of the crustal evolution of the southern North China Craton. He presented that under the previous felsic crust as the lower basement and the non-uniformity of the Archean mantle and differentiation, convection of heat and material resulted in developing a small rift and filling the Dengfeng greenstone series. Neoarchean Songyang tectonic event terminated early cratonization, forming a new unified Archean craton, then switching to Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution stage.

              4. According to China's multiple high-grade metamorphism and deformation characteristics of small greenstone series, he systematically summarized and proposed methods of large-scale mapping and typical structural analysis, combing a comprehensive research ideas for material components to restore a combination of reconstruction. It promoted the deepening of the Precambrian geology.

              5. After restoration and reconstruction of the early complex metamorphism, deformation and evolutionary history of the Caozhuang Complex, he argued that the late ductile thrusting and exhumation of blocks resulted in the structural characteristics of the most ancient continental crust in China.

              6. His study presents the basic characteristics of early Precambrian basement in the Qinling orogenic belt, undergoing the multiple-stage dispersals of ocean, continent and many blocks. After non-uniform extension and asynchronous rifting, complex closing resulted in the formation and evolution of the orogen.

              Third, the regional integrated researchon structure and extensive international comparis on and cooperation

              He took the Qinling Orogenic Belt and the Central China Orogenic System as abase to carry out the actual inverstigation and comprehensive comparison of major and typical orogenic belts and basins all over the world. He did some comparison to regional tectonics of the Qinling Orogen to other Central and East Paleo-Tethyan orogens from the view of global tectonics, discussing the structural characteristics and continental dynamics in China.

              1. He conducted a comparative study of the geological investigation of major orogenic belts and basins, such as the Dabie- Qinling- Kunlun- Qilian comprehensive research and some related Central China Orogen-dominated basins, and the basins cover the Western China, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Himalayas, and North and South Tianshan Basin, the Hengduan Mountains, Yinshan-Yanshan, and the lower Yangtze of Anhui, Hunan, Hubei provinces, southeast coastal area, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Ordos. He studied in detail and carried out a comprehensive comparison of some key parts of the Qinling Mountains with Eastern Tethys, for discussing tectonic characteristics of orogens and basins in China.

              2. By comparison of typical basins associated with the world's major orogens, Precambrian geological investigation such as the Appalachian Cordillera, the Great Lakes Region, the Alps Orogen and basins on its both sides, the Germany Hercynian belt, the Rhine Graben, Bohemian Massif, West Coast of British Caledonian and Hercynian belt, a comprehensive comparison of tectonics and structural position to mainland China Qinling was carried out to explore the characteristics of Chinese mainland in the global tectonics.

              3. Based on geological correlation among orogenic belts all over the world, he outlines the unique characteristics of orogenic belts and basins of China mainland in the world of regional commonality, presenting a special tectonic background and its long-term structural evolution in which the global causes of marine geodynamics played the unique role of continental stability, and complex ocean-continent geography and complex multi-block coexistence in mainland China, for discussing basic scientific problems on the continent. A variety of continental crusts and mantles underwent the vertical growth, lateral accretion and subduction under the non- steady-state kinetics with the unique features of the evolution and genetic mechanism of the continent in mainland China.

              Fourth, comprehensive study on orogens and hydrocarbon-bearing basins and the coupling orogen-basin relation

              He has presided a number of projects of different oil-bearing basins, including the Nanyang Basin in southern North China, the South China Basin, the Hefei Basin, the Hanzhong Basin, the Upper Yangtze ( including Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Chongqing, Guizhou, etc.) Basin, the Xinjiang Yili Basin, the Northeast Tarim Basin and other oil-bearing basins. He provided comprehensive and multidisciplinary geophysical-based geological research. He proposed along-term basin-mountain coupling and transition, geodynamic mechanism in the Qinling orogen of the Central China Orogen and the basins on its both sides. He proposed extreme conditions for marine oil and gas accumulation under complex geological systems in southern China.

              Academician Guowei Zhang has led the research community to put the Qinling orogenic system and basins on its both sides as the long-term natural laboratory and research base. Based on the Chinese mainland geological reality, national and global comparison, he adopted geological, geophysical, geochemical and other comprehensive methods, combining geographical advantages of China, focusing on exploration of the three-dimensional structure of the continental crust and mantle, to discuss assembly among many blocks, ocean-continent accretion, subduction mechanisms, formation, evolution and its unique attributes of the continent and rules of deep mantle dynamics and responses of resources, energy, environment and disaster, to develop contemporary issues in the field of geosciences frontiers for the development of continental dynamics and the national needs and fundamental issues to take part in the contemporary competition and development of international geosciences.

              Representative Publications:

              1. Zhang Guowei, Bai Yubao, Sun Yong, et al, 1985. Composition and Evolution of the Archaean Crust in Central Henan, China. Precambrian Research, 27 (1-3):7-35.

              2. Zhang Guowei, 1988. Formation and evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt, Northwestern University Press, 1 -192.

              3. Zhang Guowei, Yu Zaiping, Sun Yong, et al, 1989. The major suture zones of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Southeast Asain Earth Science, 3 (1-4):63-76.

              4. Zhang Guowei, Yu Zaiping, Zhou Dingwu, et al, 1989. Phanerozoic platetectonics and intracontinental orogeny of the Qinling belt. Progess in Geosciences of China (1985-1988), Paper to 28th IGC, 193-197.

              5. Zhang Guowei, Zhang ZQ, Dong YP, 1995. Tectonic nature and major tectono stratigraphic units of the Qinling orogenic belt and its tectonic significance. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 11 (2): 101 -114.

              6. Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Lai Shaocong, 1995. Tectonics and structure of Qinling orogenic belt. Science in China (Ser.B), 38 (11): 1379-1394.

              7. Zhang Guowei, Xiang Liwen, Meng Qingren, 1995. The Qinling orogenic and intracontinental orogenic mechanism. Episodes, 18 (1-2): 36-39.

              8. Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Yu Zaiping, et al, 1996. Orogenesis and dynamics of the Qinling Orogen. Science in China (Ser.D), 39 (3): 225-234.

              9. Zhang Guowei, Guo Anlin, Liu Futian, et al, 1996. Three-dimentional architecture and dynamic analysis of the Qinling Orogenic Belt. Science in China (Series D), 39 (Supp.): 1-9.

              10. Zhang Guowei, Zhang Ren, Yuan X C., 1996. Orogenic processes and the three-dimensional lithospheric structure of the Qinling orogenic belt (in English), Science Press.

              11. Zhang Guowei, Liu Xiaoming , 1998. Several problems on the "Central China Orogen". Earth Sciences, 23 (5) : 443-448.

              12. Zhang Guowei, Lisan Zhong, Liu Junxia, Teng Zhihong, et al, 1999. Structural features, formation and evolution of the Yili Basin. Earth Science Frontiers, l6(4) : 203-214.

              13. Zhang Guowei, Yu Zaiping, Dong YP, Yao AP, 2000. Discussion on Precambrian tectonic framework and evolution of the Qinling region. Acta Petrologica Sinica,16 (1) : 11-21.

              14. Zhang Guowei, Zhang Ren, Yuan X C. et al, 2001. Qinling Orogenic Belt and Science Press, 1-855.

              15. Zhang Guowei, Dong Yunpeng, Lai Shaocong, et al., 2004. The Mianlue tectonic zone and Mianlue suture zone on southern margin of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt. Science in China, Ser. D, 47 (4): 300-316.

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